The Konigsberg bridge problem

 Is the perhaps the best known example in graph theory. It was a long-standing problem until solved by  Leonhard Euler(1907-1983) in 1736, by means of a graph.
Two islands, C and D, formed by the Pergel River in Konigsberg were connected to each other and to the banks A and B with seven bridges. The problem was to start at any of the four land areas of the city A, B, C, or D, walk over each of the seven bridges exactly ones, and return to the starting point.

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Euler represented this situation by means of a graph. The vertices represent the land areas and the edges represent the bridges. Euler proved that a solution for this problem does not exist.

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